fat loss

Weight loss
Classification and external resources
9 783.21

Weight loss, in the context of medicine, health or obese state.


Unintentional weight loss

Unintentional weight loss occurs in many diseases and conditions, including some very serious diseases such as cancer, AIDS, and a variety of other diseases.

Poor management of type 1 diabetes mellitus, also known as insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM), leads to an excessive amount of glucose and an insufficient amount of insulin in the bloodstream. This triggers the release of triglycerides from adipose (fat) tissue and catabolism (breakdown) of amino acids in muscle tissue. This results in a loss of both fat and lean mass, leading to a significant reduction in total body weight. Untreated type 1 diabetes mellitus can produce weight loss. In addition to weight loss due to a reduction in fat and lean mass, fluid loss can be triggered by illnesses such as diabetes, certain medications, lack of fluid intake or other factors. Fluid loss in addition to reduction in fat and lean mass exacerbates the risk for cachexia.[1]

Infections such as HIV may alter metabolism, leading to weight loss.[2]

Hormonal disruptions, such as an overactive thyroid (hyperthyroidism), may also exhibit as weight loss.[3]

One cutoff value of where unintentional weight loss is of significant concern is where there’s a weight loss of more than 5% in the past month, or at least 10% during the last 6 months.[4]

Causes of unintentional weight loss

  • Starvation, a state of extreme hunger resulting from lack of essential nutrients over a prolonged period.
  • Cancer, a very common and sometimes fatal cause of unexplained (pancreatic cancer), ovarian, hematologic or lung malignancies.
  • AIDS can cause weight loss and should be suspected in high-risk individuals presenting with weight loss.
  • pancreatitis, gastritis, diarrhea and many other GI conditions can cause weight loss.
  • Infection. Some infectious diseases can cause weight loss. These include fungal illness, parasitic diseases, AIDS, and some other sub-acute or occult infections may cause weight loss.
  • emesis and nausea. This can cause weight loss.
  • Cardiac disease. Cardiovascular disease, especially congestive heart failure, may cause unexplained weight loss.
  • Pulmonary disease.
  • Connective tissue disease
  • Neurologic disease, including dementia[5]
  • In some people, certain side effect.
  • Stress can cause weight loss. However recent research (Jastebott, Potenza et al. 2010) shows a correlation between obesity and high levels of stress.[6]

Intentional weight loss

Intentional weight loss refers to the loss of total body mass in an effort to improve appearance.

Therapeutic weight loss, in individuals who are [10]

Attention to diet in particular can be beneficial in reducing the impact of diabetes and other health risks of an overweight or obese individual.

Weight loss occurs when an individual is in a state of negative thermodynamic flux: when the body is exerting more energy (i.e. in metabolism) than it is consuming (i.e. from food or other nutritional supplements), it will use stored reserves from fat or muscle, gradually leading to weight loss.

It is not uncommon for some people who are currently at their ideal body weight to seek additional weight loss in order to improve athletic performance, and/or meet required weight classification for participation in a sport. However, others may be driven by achieving a more attractive body image. Notably, being underweight is associated with health risks such as difficulty fighting off infection, osteoporosis, decreased muscle strength, trouble regulating body temperature and even increased risk of death.[11]

There are many diet plans and recipes that can be helpful for weight loss. While some are classified as unhealthy and potentially harmful to one’s general health, others are recommended by specialists. Diet plans are generally designed according to the recommended caloric intake but it is important to note that the most successful diets are those that simultaneously promote citation needed]

Intentional weight loss is, in most cases, achieved with the help of diets since dietary restriction is generally more manageable than making a significant change in one’s lifestyle (although weight loss is generally associated with some degree of change in lifestyle habits) or beginning to practice a sport.[[13]

According to the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2010 Executive Summary, which was released on 31 January 2011, those that achieve and manage a healthy weight do so most successfully by being continuously vigilant in taking in only the amount of calories that meet their needs and with physical activity.

Low-calorie regimen diets are also referred to as balanced percentage diets. Due to their minimal detrimental effects, these types of diets are most commonly recommended by nutritionists. In addition to restricting calorie intake, a balanced diet also regulates macronutrient consumption. Therefore, from the total number of allotted daily calories, 55% should come from carbohydrates, 15% from protein, and 30% from fats with no more than 10% of total fat coming from saturated forms.[14] For instance, a 1,200 calorie diet would consist of no more than 660 calories from carbohydrates, 180 from protein, and 360 from fat. Although counting calories seems difficult altogether, the long term benefits of calorie restriction are many. After reaching the desired body weight, the amount of calories consumed per day may be increased gradually, without exceeding 2,000 net (i.e. derived by subtracting calories burned by physical activity from calories consumed). Combined with increased physical activity, low-calorie diets are thought to be most effective long term, unlike crash diets which can achieve short term results, at best. Physical activity could greatly enhance the efficiency of a diet. The healthiest weight loss regimen, therefore, is one that consists of a balanced diet and moderate physical activity.

The golden rule in weight loss is to avoid foods that are high in fats, which contribute to increased body mass and are detrimental to the overall health. Further, weight gain has been associated with excessive [16]

Therapeutic weight loss techniques

The least intrusive weight loss methods, and those most often recommended, are adjustments to eating patterns and increased physical activity, generally in the form of exercise. Physicians will usually recommend that their overweight patients combine a reduction of processed foods[18]

An increase in fiber intake is also recommended for regulating bowel movements.

Other methods of weight loss include use of appetite, block fat absorption, or reduce stomach volume. Application of such medications, however, should only be performed under the strict supervision of a physician and/or specialist.

food energy by reducing the size of the stomach.

Dietary supplements, though widely used, are not considered a healthy option for weight loss. Even though a wide array of these products is available to the public, very few are effective long term.

Virtual gastric band uses hypnosis to make the brain think the stomach is smaller than it really is and hence lower the amount of food ingested. This brings as a consequence weight reduction. This method is complemented with psychological treatment for anxiety management and with hypnopedia. In 1996 a study revealed that hypnosis reinforced with cognitive-behavioral therapy was more effective than just CBT for weight reduction.[19]

Crash dieting

A crash diet refers to willful nutritional restriction (except water) for more than 12 waking hours. The desired result is to have the body burn fat for energy with the goal of losing a significant amount of weight in a short time. There is a possibility of muscle loss, depending on the approach used.[clarification needed] Crash dieting can be dangerous to health and this method of weight loss is not recommended by medical doctors.[20]

Crash dieting is not the same as intermittent fasting, in which the individual periodically abstains from food (e.g., every other day).

According to the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics,[21] “If the diet or product sounds too good to be true, it probably is. There are no foods or pills that magically burn fat. No super foods will alter your genetic code. No products will miraculously melt fat while you watch TV or sleep. Some ingredients in supplements and herbal products can be dangerous and even deadly for some people” (2011). To feel healthier and live longer, the focus needs to be on making lifestyle changes to how a person eats.

Weight loss industry

There is a substantial market for products which promise to make weight loss easier, quicker, cheaper, more reliable, or less painful. These include books, DVDs, CDs, cremes, lotions, pills, rings and earrings, body wraps, body belts and other materials, not to mention fitness centers, personal coaches, weight loss groups, and food products and supplements. US residents in 1992 spent an estimated $30 billion a year on all types of diet programs and products, including diet foods and drinks.[22]

Between $33 billion and $55 billion is spent annually on weight loss products and services, including medical procedures and pharmaceuticals, with weight loss centers garnering between 6 percent and 12 percent of total annual expenditure. About 70 percent of Americans’ dieting attempts are of a self-help nature. Although often short-lived, these diet fads are a positive trend for this sector as Americans ultimately turn to professionals to help them meet their weight loss goals.[23]

In Western Europe, sales of weight-loss products, excluding prescription medications, topped £900 million ($1.4 billion) in 2009.[24]

See also


  1. ^ Morley, John E; Thomas, David R; Margaret-Mary G, Wilson (April 2006), “Cachexia: pathophysiology and clinical relevance”, American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 83 (4): 735–743
  2. 16477562.
  3. ^ “Thyroid and weight” (PDF). American Thyroid Association. 2005. http://www.thyroid.org/patients/brochures/Thyroid_and_Weight.pdf. Retrieved 2011-01-26.
  4. ^ Page 67 in: The role of nutrition in maintaining health in the nation’s elderly: evaluating coverage of nutrition services for the Medicare population. Author: Institute of Medicine (U.S.). Committee on Nutrition Services for Medicare Beneficiaries. ISBN 0-309-06846-0, ISBN 978-0-309-06846-8
  5. ^ Massompoor SM (April 2004). “Unintentional weight loss”. Shiraz E-Medical Journal 5 (2). http://semj.sums.ac.ir/vol5/apr2004/rwtloss.htm.
  6. ^ http://www.nature.com/npp/journal/v36/n3/full/npp2010194a.html
  7. ^ Butler ME (September 2001). “Diabetes study shows value in diet, exercise”. U.S. Medicine. Archived from the original on 23 April 2008. http://web.archive.org/web/20080423042119/http://www.usmedicine.com/article.cfm?articleID=261&issueID=30.
  8. ^ 10997648.
  9. ^ “Prevalence of various medical conditions increases with overweight and obesity”. American Obesity Association. 2005. Archived from the original on 22 January 2007. http://web.archive.org/web/20070122121959/http://www.obesity.org/subs/fastfacts/Health_Effects.shtml.
  10. 10.1002/14651858.CD006062.
  11. ^ “Being underweight poses health risks”. Mayo Clinic. Archived from the original on 4 March 2007. http://web.archive.org/web/20070304150801/http://www.mayoclinic.org/news2005-mchi/2796.html. Retrieved 13 January 2007.
  12. ^ http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/001940.htm. Retrieved 2010-07-19.
  13. ^ “The 2000 Calorie Diet – and the RDAs”. http://caloriecount.about.com/cc/2000-calorie-diet.php. Retrieved 2010-07-19. Template:Need medrs
  14. ^ “1200 Calorie Diet”. http://diet.lovetoknow.com/wiki/1200_Calorie_Diet. Retrieved 2010-07-19. Template:Need medrs
  15. 20921542. //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2951287/.
  16. ^ Harmon, Katherine (4 October 2010). “Sleep might help dieters shed more fat”. Scientific American. http://www.scientificamerican.com/blog/post.cfm?id=sleep-might-help-dieters-shed-more-2010-10-04. Retrieved 20 October 2010.
  17. ^ “World Health Organization recommends eating less processed food”. BBC News. 3 March 2003. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/health/2814253.stm.
  18. ^ “Choosing a safe and successful weight loss program”. Weight-control Information Network. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. April 2008. http://win.niddk.nih.gov/publications/choosing.htm. Retrieved 2011-01-26.
  19. [1]
  20. ^ Kirby S. “Signs of eating disorders: crash diets”. disordered-eating.co.uk. http://www.disordered-eating.co.uk/signs-of-eating-disorders/crash-diets.html. Retrieved 2011-01-26. Template:Need medrs
  21. ^ Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. (2011). Staying away from fad diets. Retrieved 1-16-12, from http://www.eatright.org/Public/content.aspx?id=6851.
  22. ^ “The facts about weight loss products and programs”. DHHS Publication No (FDA) 92-1189. US Food and Drug Administration. Archived from the original on 26 September 2006. http://web.archive.org/web/20060926035920/http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/~dms/wgtloss.html. Retrieved 2011-01-26.
  23. ^ “Profiting From America’s Portly Population” (Press release). 21 April 2008. http://www.reuters.com/article/pressRelease/idUS107630+21-Apr-2008+PRN20080421. Retrieved 2009-01-17.
  24. ^ “No evidence that popular slimming supplements facilitate weight loss, new research finds”. 14 July 2010. http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2010/07/100712103445.htm. Retrieved 2010-07-19.

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